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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2021| October-December  | Volume 11 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 29, 2022

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anthropometric breast measurements of nulliparous women in Lagos Nigeria
Omamuyovwi Rosetta Archibong, Folake Olusola Abikoye, Taiwo Olusola Osisanya
October-December 2021, 11(4):1-6
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_81_22  
Background: The breast is an important aesthetic feature in a woman. It defines her body shape and is a measure of beauty and attraction. Anthropometric breast measurements done in different countries have shown anatomic variations, but there have been very few studies in the Nigerian females to aid the planning of aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgeries and serves as a guide in designing breast accessories and clothing. Objectives: The study measured anthropometric breast parameters in Nigerian females, assessed the degree of symmetry in volume of the right and left breasts and compared the measurements in females from the six geo-political zones in Nigeria and with values from women from other countries. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective descriptive analytical study of three hundred and seventy (370) female students chosen randomly from three higher institutions of learning in Yaba Local Council Development Area (LCDA) Lagos State Nigeria between ages 18 and 32 years. Fourteen parameters were measured using a measuring tape and long ruler. Results: The right sternal notch nipple length (RSNL), left sternal notch nipple length (LSNL), and the nipple nipple length (NNL) was found to be 21.88 cm, 22.31 cm and 21.70 cm, respectively. The mean mammary volume for the right and left breast were 395.78 mL and 437.65 mL, respectively. There was no significant difference in the parameters across the six geopolitical zones. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric parameters measured across the six geopolitical zones. The anthropometric values of the left breast were significantly larger.
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Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) following surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: Preliminary observations in a Saudi Arabian subpopulation
Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Dawood Ali-Alsuliman, Saeed Turki Al-Sagoor, Abdullah Saleh Al-walah, Reham Al-makrami, Abdulrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle
October-December 2021, 11(4):7-12
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_12_22  
Introduction: OHQoL is crucial for the best preoperative assessment and development of suitable indications for mandibular third molar surgical extraction. The current study hopes to report QoL after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, between January 2020 and April 2020. After consenting to partake in the study, patients’ baseline demographics, indication for seeking third molar removal and laterality of impaction were recorded. All the surgical extractions were performed by the same surgeon. Pain was assessed pre and postoperatively with the numerical pain rating scale while QoL was assessed pre and postoperatively using the validated Arabic version of the 16 item United Kingdom Oral Health Related Quality of Life measure (UK-OHQoL). Results: A total of 92 patients were recruited. There are 41 (44.6%) males and 51 (55.4%) females with M:F of 1:1.2. Age range was between 18 and 48 years with a mean of (31.2 ± 6.6) years. Age group 20–29 years constitutes the highest number of patients. Subscales: eating, appearance, sleep, mood and work revealed more percentage complaints (42.9%, 23.4%, 24.7%, 28.6%, and 16.9%, respectively). Regarding mean domain and overall QoL scores, it was observed that there was gradual improvement in mean scores from the Pre-op values and the review periods with best mean QoL reported at POD 14Conclusion: Improvement in overall mean QoL scores during the review periods as compared with the preoperative score was observed. Eating, appearance, sleep, mood and work subscales revealed more percentage complaints.
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Treatment of haemorrhoidal disease by laser haemorrhoidoplasty at Dakar preliminary study of 21 patients
Balla Diop, Pape Abdoulaye Ba, Ahmet Diouf, Baba NDiaye, Adamson Phiri, Cheikna Sylla
October-December 2021, 11(4):33-37
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_97_22  
Background: Surgical treatment of haemorrhoidal disease by laser haemorrhoidoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that facilitates the postoperative course. Due to less aggression on the anoderm and the anal canal mucosa, it causes less significant postoperative pain and low morbidity compared with conventional excision according to the Milligan–Morgan or Fergusson procedure. We report, through a preliminary study, our data on laser haemorrhoidoplasty and discuss the indications and results. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive prospective study carried out on 21 patients operated on for haemorrhoidal disease by laser haemorrhoidoplasty with or without mucopexy. Results: The series was composed of 17 men and 4 women with a male/female ratio of 4.25:1. The average age was 39.6 years with a range of 27–62 years. The symptomatology was rectal bleeding in 16 cases (76%) and anal swelling in 18 cases (85.7%). These include grade 2 haemorrhoids in 2 cases (9.5%), grade 3 in 12 cases (57%), and grade 4 in 7 cases (33%). It was associated with an anal fissure in four cases (19%) and an anal fistula in three cases (14.2%). Mucopexy and laser coagulation were performed therapeutically in 13 cases (61.9%) and laser coagulation without mucopexy was performed in 8 cases (38%). The energy delivered was on average 1488 or 496 J per pile. It was associated with skin tag excision in 18 cases (85.7%), fissurectomy, sphincterotomy, anoplasty in 4 cases (19.2%), and fistulectomy for low anal fistula in 2 cases (9.5%). Piles retraction was judged sufficient in 17 patients (81%). The postoperative course was simple with no notable complaints in 16 patients (76%). Complications consisted of minimal bleeding in six cases (28%), significant bleeding in two cases with readmission, residual skin tag in six cases (28.5%), and subcutaneous fistula in two cases (9.5%). No recurrence of the symptoms of the haemorrhoidal disease was noted. Conclusion: Laser haemorrhoidoplasty is a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of haemorrhoidal disease, especially for grade 2 and 3 haemorrhoids without major prolapse. Postoperative pain is minimal, and the risk of stenosis or incontinence is almost non-existent.
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Fractures of the mandible: Epidemiological study of 519 Nigerian cases
Rowland Agbara, Benjamin Fomete, Kelvin Uchenna Omeje
October-December 2021, 11(4):26-32
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_10_22  
Background: Epidemiological studies despite their limitations provide information that is useful for the formulation of effective and efficient injury prevention strategies. Aim: The aim is to carry out epidemiology study of mandibular fracture in a Nigerian population. Setting: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria. Data retrieved from patients’ case notes and operating records were subjected to statistical analysis involving frequencies (count, percent), measures of central tendency (mean), and measures of dispersion (standard deviation) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Mandibular fracture was classified based on sites, and patients’ socioeconomic status was classified based on United Kingdom National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC, 2010). Results: There were 466 (89.9%) males and 53 (10.1%) females. Based on Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC, 2010), there was a preponderance of analytical class 6 (n = 217; 54.9%) and 8 (n = 127; 32.2%). Road traffic–related accident (n = 385; 74.2%) was the most common aetiological factor, and a total of 215 (41.4%) patients had a record of loss of consciousness. The mandibular body (n = 225; 32.0%) followed by the parasymphyseal (n = 187; 26.6%) regions were the most fractured sites. Closed-reduction technique was the predominant treatment modality. Conclusions: A road traffic accident was the most common aetiological factor for mandibular fracture, and the mandibular body had the highest frequency of fractures. Measures aimed at injury prevention should be continually reviewed and updated to limit the morbidity and economic burden on individuals.
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Ease and willingness to use Smartphone applications for visual acuity assessment among patients in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
Elijah Ndako Peter, Emmanuel R Abah, Kehinde Kabir Oladigbolu, Elsie Samaila, Farouk Garba, Asimau Eivov-Idris Zubairu
October-December 2021, 11(4):13-17
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_60_22  
Background: Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly becoming more popular for medical use. Aim: The aim of this article is to determine the willingness and ease of using smartphone apps for visual assessment among adult patients attending the general outpatient ophthalmology clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria in Nigeria. Design: The study was a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional design. Materials and Methods: New and old adult patients who presented at the clinic and consented to the study were selected. Visual acuity assessment was done using a 6-m Snellen chart and three selected Smartphone visual acuity applications sequentially. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection and then analysed using SPSS version 23. Results: A total of 287 patients were studied. Majority (96%) of the patients found the Smartphone apps to be easy to use. A good proportion (76%) of the patients also believed that Smartphone charts were easier to use than the conventional Snellen chart and expressed willingness to use the app again. Conclusion: Smartphone visual acuity apps could offer a convenient, easy-to-learn, and easy-to-use means of visual acuity assessment. This coupled with the demonstrated patient’s willingness to embrace this technology could be used to encourage the use of clinically validated apps for the early detection as well as monitoring of any impairment of vision, especially in out-of-clinic situations.
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CASE REPORTS
Giant ovarian endometrioma: A case report
Anisah Yahya, Aisha Mustapha, Abimbola Omolara Kolawole, Adekunle Olarenwaju Oguntayo, Nafisa Bello, Halima Oziohu Aliyu, Sunday Adeyemi Adewuyi
October-December 2021, 11(4):41-44
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_40_21  
Ovarian endometrioma is quite common among women of reproductive age but rarely exceed 6 cm in diameter. Ovarian endometrioma exceeding 10 cm in dimension, often referred to as giant endometrioma, is rare and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to clinicians. We present a 33-year-old single nullipara referred to our facility with a 3-year history of recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, and difficulty in breathing. The challenges in making diagnosis of a huge ovarian endometrioma are highlighted and the literature on huge ovarian endometrioma reviewed.
  316 30 -
A completely patent omphalomesenteric duct causing recurrent intestinal obstruction in a Nigerian adult: A case report
Muhammad Daniyan, Ahmad Mai, Peter Pase Abur, Linus Ukwubile
October-December 2021, 11(4):38-40
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_76_22  
Mechanical small bowel obstruction is perhaps the most important pathology of the small bowel encountered in surgical practice. The most common etiologies are postoperative adhesions and external hernias. Congenital anomalies like patent omphalomesenteric duct (OMD) hardly make the list among adult patients. Although patent OMD remnants are a rare cause of small bowel obstruction among adults, they should be considered in the list of differentials, especially in the setting of no previous abdominal surgery or external hernia, and deliberately looked for. A high index of suspicion remains the key in the identification and appropriate management of such a rare disease entity. We present the case of a young Nigerian adult with recurrent intestinal obstruction from a completely patent OMD.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Burdens and predictors of the Burden experienced by Family Caregivers of Patients with Oral and Maxillofacial Tumours
Olalere O Gbolahan, Samuel A Olowookere, Timothy O Aladelusi, Adeola A Olusanya, Abiodun O Fasola, Victor I Akinmoladun, Victoria N Okoje, Juwon T Arotiba
October-December 2021, 11(4):18-25
DOI:10.4103/jwas.jwas_35_22  
Aim: There is a dearth of knowledge on the burden of family caregivers of patients with maxillofacial tumours in Nigeria. This burden may be influenced by racial peculiarities and the disease entity of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess and document the burdens and predictors of burdens experienced by family caregivers of patients with oral maxillofacial tumours presenting at a tertiary health facility in South Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study that included 110 consenting family caregivers of patients diagnosed with oral and maxillofacial tumours. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics and caregiving burden using the Zarit burden interview tool. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0. Result: The most frequent group of caregivers was patients’ children (32.0%), aged 30–39 years (28.2%), females (54.5%), with secondary education (41.8%), and traders (38.2%), who earned less than national minimum wage (55.5%). Majority (42.7%) experienced mild-to-moderate burden; coping strategy was mainly prayers (76.4%), while the greatest need expressed was financial assistance (93.6%). The significant predictors of caregiver burden were the presence of pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.961; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.165–7.526; P = 0.023) and severe clinical condition (AOR = 3.342; 95% CI = 1.133–9.853; P = 0.029). Conclusion: The most common category of the burden of family caregivers of patients with maxillofacial tumours was the mild-to-moderate category, and the most significant predictors were the presence of pain and severity of clinical condition. The greatest need expressed was financial assistance. Therefore, an emphasis on adequate pain control and alternate sources of funding may appreciably relieve the burden of family caregivers of patients with maxillofacial tumours.
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