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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 37-44

Comparison of ocular biomery in primary open angle glaucoma and non-glaucoma in South West Nigeria

1 Eleta Eye Institute, Olomi Academy, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ajibola Toyin Oluwaniyi
P.O. Box 29715, Secretariat Post Office, Eleta, Ibadan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jwas.jwas_264_22

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Background: Glaucoma is a public health problem in Nigeria. The number of individuals affected by glaucoma in Nigeria is much higher than the individuals known to have the disease. Ocular parameters such as intraocular pressure, central cornea thickness, axial length and refractive error have all been documented as risk factors of glaucoma especially among Caucasians and African Americans, with little documentation in Africa where there’s an alarming rate of blindness. Aim and Objectives: To compare central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length (AL) and refractive state in participants with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and non-glaucoma in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was carried out among 184 newly diagnosed POAG and non-glaucoma adult participants attending the outpatient clinic of Eleta eye institute. The CCT, IOP, AL and refractive state were measured in each participant. Test of significance between proportions in categorical variables were assessed using chi square test (χ2) in both groups. The means were compared using independent t-test while correlation between parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age of the POAG participants was 57.16 + 13.3 years and the mean age of the non-glaucoma participants was 54.15 + 13.4 years. The mean IOP in the POAG group was 30.2 + 8.9mmHg while non- glaucoma group was 14.2 + 2.6mmHg (P < 0.001), other ocular parameters were not significantly different in both groups. In the POAG group, decreased spherical equivalent refractive error (i.e increasing myopia) was significantly associated with increased axial length (r= -0.252, P = 0.01), but not significant in the non- glaucoma group. However, in the non-glaucoma group, central cornea thickness increased with increasing intraocular pressure (r= 0.305, P = 0.003), which was not significant in the glaucoma group. Conclusion: Patients with POAG had much higher IOP and thus, IOP remains a significant risk factor in its development. There was a significant relationship between refractive state and axial length in the POAG group while a significant relationship was identified between central cornea thickness and intraocular pressure in the non- glaucoma group.

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