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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 100-104

Single dose versus 72-hour course of ceftriazone for antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing post-caesarean wound infection: A randomized control trial

Family Planning and General Gynaecology Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Usman Danjuma Zubairu
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, P.M.B. 06, Zaria, Kaduna State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jwas.jwas_279_22

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Background: Single dose antibiotic prophylaxis has been established as the standard for prevention of post-caesarean wound infection in most developed centers across the world. However, this is not the case in most developing countries including Nigeria where various multiple dose regimens are still being used due to paucity of locally generated evidence, and anecdotal suggestions of a higher risk of infectious morbidity in our environment. Objectives: This study was aimed to determine whether there was a significant difference in the incidence of post-caesarean section wound infection between a single dose and a 72-hour course of intravenous ceftriazone for antibiotic prophylaxis in selected patients undergoing both elective and emergency caesarean section. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was carried out among 170 consenting parturients scheduled for elective or emergency caesarean section who met a set out selection criteria, between January and June 2016. They were divided randomly into two equal groups, A and B, of 85 each using the Windows WINPEPI software version 11.65 (Copyright J.H. Abrahamson, 22 Aug 2016) for randomization. Group A patients received a single dose of 1 g, whereas Group B patients were given a 72-hour course (1 g daily) of intravenous ceftriazone. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of clinical wound infection. The secondary outcome measures were the incidences of clinical endometritis and febrile morbidity. Data were collected using a structured proforma and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Results: The overall incidence of wound infection was 11.2%; Group A had 11.8%, and Group B had 10.6%. Endometritis was 20.6%; Group A had 20% and Group B had 21.2%. Febrile morbidity was 4.1%; Group A had 3.5% and Group B had 4.7%. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of wound infection (relative risk [RR] = 1.113; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.433, 2.927; P = 0.808), endometritis (RR = 0.943; 95% CI = 0.442, 1.953; P = 0.850), and febrile morbidity (RR = 0.745, 95% CI = 0.161, 3.415; P = 0.700) between the two groups. Group A showed similar risk of developing wound infection compared to Group B (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in post-caesarean wound infection and other infectious morbidity between patients that received a single dose, and those that received a 72-hour course of ceftriazone for antibiotic prophylaxis. This suggests that single dose antibiotic prophylaxis with ceftriazone is similar to multiple dose regimens in efficacy with likely cost-effective advantage.

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