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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1-7

Effect of dental treatment on the quality of life of children with traumatic dental injuries in ibadan, Nigeria

1 Department of Child Dental Health, Bayero University Kano/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
2 Department of Child Oral Health, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yewande Isabella Adeyemo
Department of Child Dental Health, Bayero University Kano/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jwas.JWAS_11_21

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Background: Anterior dental trauma is known to be common in our environment as well as the complications that come with it. These injuries have been seen to impact the quality of life (QoL) of children significantly due to the fact that they compromise their dental health. This leads to aesthetic, psychological, social, and therapeutic problems impacting both the children and their parents. Treatment of these injuries has also been severely neglected possibly due to lack of awareness of where or how to access treatment as well as fear of dental treatment. However, treatment may on the other hand bring about a substantial improvement on the QoL of children in terms of their daily living. Aim: To assess the effect of dental treatment on the QoL of 12- to 15-year-old Nigerian school children previously identified as having had traumatized anterior teeth. Design: This is a follow-up study where secondary data were extracted from a cross-sectional study involving 1575 children attending public and private secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. One hundred and ninety-six adolescents with evidence of dental trauma, previously identified as having their QoL negatively affected as a result of dental trauma, were called to take part in the follow-up study. The Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) was used in assessing the QoL of participants with dental trauma before and after treatment. Data were analysed using the IBM® SPSS® Statistics version 20.0, and the effect of dental treatment on the QoL of the participants was assessed using the McNemar’s test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Fifty-one (26.0%) out of the 196 invited children participated; there were 31 males and 20 females. The mean age was 13.4 years (standard deviation 1.1 years). Eighty traumatized anterior teeth were involved, with the maxillary centrals being the commonest (68, 85%). Twenty-three (45.1%) participants had more than one traumatized tooth. The commonest dental trauma was enamel fracture, which involved the dentine (39, 48.8%). The main treatments given were composite build-up (36, 45%) and root canal treatment (42, 52.5%). With the CPQ11-14, in the oral symptoms domain, the number adversely affected before treatment fell from 30 (58.8%) to 3 (5.9%) (P < 0.001); in the emotional well-being domain, the number dropped from 35 (68.6%) to 10 (19.6%) (P < 0.001); and in the social well-being domain, the number fell from 34 (66.7%) to 22 (43.1%) (P = 0.004). However, in the functional limitation domain, the number adversely affected increased from 24 (47.1%) before to 46 (90.2%) after treatment (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Treatment resulted in a significant improvement in the QoL of participants, especially regarding their oral symptoms, and emotional and social well-being. However, there was worsening in the functional limitation domain. There is the need to introduce oral health into the school curriculum in order to encourage early reporting and prompt treatment of traumatic dental injuries.

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