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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 21-26

Testicular cancer at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital: A 10-year retrospective review

Urology Division, Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. E J Raphael
Urology Division, Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jwas.jwas_903_19

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Background: Testicular cancers are rare malignancies. They are however very common in males aged 15–40 years. Reports of increasing incidence of testicular cancer in western countries have been noted. Despite the increasing incidence, mortality has remained low in these countries. There are few publications on the management of testicular tumors in Nigeria. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the hospital prevalence and highlight our experience in the management of patients with testicular cancer. Materials and Methods: This was a 10-year retrospective study on patients diagnosed with histologically confirmed testicular cancer from January 2009 to December 2018. The case records were retrieved. Data obtained included biodata, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment received and outcomes. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Eleven patients with testicular cancer were managed during the study period, constituting 0.01% of new cases seen in the hospital. Peak age was 20–29 years (54.55%), with a mean age of 29.27 ± 9.51yrs. The most common presentation was painless scrotal swelling, observed in nine (81.8%) patients. Nine (81.8%) patients presented six months or more after onset of symptoms with advanced disease. Distant metastasis was seen in two (18.2%) patients. Right sided disease was found in seven (63.6%) and left sided disease in four (36.4%). All had radical inguinal orchidectomy. The most common histological diagnosis was seminoma in 8 (72.7%) patients. All the subjects were offered four courses of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. However, only four (36.4%) completed the chemotherapy. A statistically significant association was observed between the duration of symptoms and the disease stage (P = 0.003), and between number of chemotherapy sessions and survival (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Testicular cancer was an uncommon condition in the catchment area of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, affecting relatively young men. The commonest presenting complaint was painless scrotal swelling. Most patients presented with Stage II disease, with seminoma being the commonest histopathology. All had surgical treatment; adjuvant chemotherapy improved 5-year survival. Public education is necessary to surmount sociocultural barriers to effective management of testicular tumors in our environment.

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